Cargo is transported by many means, such as truck, boat, train and plane over land, air and sea. In all instances, the cargo must be secured, not only on the outside but on the inside, as well.
Securing the Interior Cargo
The cargo on the inside of the cargo container needs to be prevented from shifting, which can damage the cargo. This is done most commonly with lashing tie-downs that attach to lashing bars, corner posts or steel rings on the floor or walls of the container; the securing straps are then ratcheted snugly to prevent shifting. Expandable braces are also used to fill dead space.
Securing the Exterior of the Container
Securing the exterior of the cargo is essentially the same concept as securing the interior. The transporter doesn’t want the cargo to move, gaining inertia that could damage the cargo or the vessel. Most often, heavy-duty ratcheting tie downs are used to strap down the cargo container to secure steel points. Also, friction increasing material is often affixed to the location of the cargo to prevent unnecessary shifting.
Additional Securing Devices
The following is a list of commonly used tools to secure cargoes: netting,cable, ropes, latching belts, steel wire, plastic wrapping, chains, nylon tape and tensioners.